II. Gender Discrimination
Gender discrimination is not a very new phenomenon in this modern time in India, but it was also
prevailing in the ancient time. Women face every kind of discrimination in this society. They are deprived from
the basic facilities like education. Women‟s lives are shaped totally by our customs that are centuries old. They
had many boundation also. Well as described by the Manu in 200 BC , “ by a young girl, by a young woman , or
even by an aged ones, nothing must be done independently, even in her own house. In childhood a female must
be subject to her father, in youth to her husband, when her lord is dead to her sons, women must never be
independent”. So by these words of Manu we can imagine the condition of women at that time, how critical it
was. Even today after so many centuries ago, things are changed, we had developed new technology, we talked
about changes, globalization, we had seen many changes but one thing that remains constant and that is the
status of women in our Indian society. Still they are considered a girl not a person. They are still not safe in this
society and not seen with respect. Denial of equality, rights and opportunity and suppression any type on the
basis of gender is also gender discrimination. Today from our total population, half of the world‟s population is
women and in that half, two thirds are illiterates. In India and in many countries we are having patrilineal
society or male dominating society which means that still the head of the family is father. It is generally seen in
northern countries but in the south there are some families which are having matrilineal system, means the head
of the family is mother who decides each and every thing. In other words she is the owner of the family. Gender
discrimination is customized habitually. Gender discrimination has adverse impact on development goals as
reduces economic growth. Practicing Gender discrimination is not the solution of anything. It creates hindrances
in the participation of women in social, political and economic activities. It can affect badly our society. In fact,
even today at this stage where we talk about equality, in many developing countries including India lot of
gender discrimination and gender inequality is still going on in terms of education, health, employment, social
values, customs, on the name of caste, as well as on the norm of sexual harassment. Discrimination has its many
faces in different forms. Even today educated people had their wrong thinking about women that women had to
do nothing in their life except from cooking, cleanliness, and serving whole family including husband, children
etc. If a male person will not have respect towards the women then how we can stop this gender inequality or
India has witnessed gender inequality from its early history due to its social, economic and religious
practices that resulted a wide gap between the position of men and women in the society. How we can forget
that men and women are the two wheels of a cart whose equal participation is needed in nation progress.
Without the development of one we cannot imagine the development of other. Men and women are the two
halves of humanity who need equal support and cooperation and without the one; another one cannot reach up to
the excellence. Women face discrimination right from the childhood. They are discriminated in every field. A
primary way that parents discriminates their girl children in everything. Mostly illiterates people practices this
evil. Education plays a major role in removing gender discrimination from the society. In India we have many
people who are happy on the birth of a son and remain unhappy on the birth of a girl child. They did not believe
in educating their daughter. Educating women is the prime factor to combat gender discrimination and for the
upliftment of women. Our people of Indian society prefer sons over daughters on everything for example if they
doesn‟t have a son then who will look after their family, who will give them food in old age, who will forward
their family hierarchy and so on. Birth of a son in a family celebrated with lots of happiness whereas on the
same hand birth of a daughter celebrated with lot of sorrow and considered as a burden of a life. Sons are always
demandable for these things then consequently, women accorded lower status in the Indian society and then
again the process of gender discrimination takes place. Women in India face discrimination in every dimensions,
either it is social, economic or political. They had an inferior status over all. Gender inequality prevails in work,
education, allocation of food, health care and fertility choices. Many developing countries including India have
displayed Gender inequality in education, employment and health. Even everyday through different medium we
heard news about the gender discrimination going on in schools, societies everywhere. High levels of gender
discrimination are seen against women in the provision of health care, nutrition, education, in Northern and
Western India. From health and nutrition point of view girls are more likely to be malnourished than boys both
in northern and southern states. This is one of the eg. Of gender discriminated in health. Discrimination of girls
in nutrition, preventive and curative health care seeking have an impact on morbidity and mortality. So, from the
above explanation it is clear that women are discriminated on different grounds.
III. Discrimination Faced By Women Through Ancient Time Till Today:
Women life is full of complication. They are not free in this so called male dominating society, they are
n so much of boundation. Their life starts with discrimination and end with discrimination. Hence , there are
some different faces of discrimination which they have to live with it:
1) Sati Pratha
2) Widow marriage
Gender Inequality and Women Discrimination
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3) Early marriage
5) Domestic violence
6) Female infanticide
7) Female foeticide
8) Denial of education
9) Discrimination in food, clothing, and shelter
10) Less respect in family and society
11) No decision –making power
12) Preference of son
13) Gender biasness
14) Social injustice especially towards women.
Solution How We Can Lower The Gender Discrimination Are As Follow:
1) Remove gender inequality from home and then from society.
2) Providing equal education to girls and boys.
3) Giving women equal opportunity in social, economic and in political arenas.
4) Create more social awareness in society and in nation.
5) Most important thing is to create awareness among the parents so that they can understand the importance
6) Women should be aware regarding their right.
7) Changes should be made in mindset of people of lower section as well as higher section.
8) Women should have decision –making power in the family.
9) Women empowerment is more necessary today.
10) There should be a strong focus in women‟s human rights, equality, choice, autonomy and reproductive
rights. Gender equality and women‟s human right must be central be central to all goals.
11) As individuals, women must have access to financial resources, income opportunities and equal
participation as informed decisions makers at all levels.
12) Women should be more aware about the government schemes and its benefits so, that they can utilize it
properly and timely.
13) Changes are needed in the societal norms and the mind-set of the people about women and understand the
emerging roles of girls and women for the development of nation.
IV. Review Of Literature:
RohiniPande and AnjuMalhotra , „ Son Preference and Daughter Neglect in India‟, shows that son preference
in India is a well-documented and its implication shows that is there is more sex ratio, female feticide and
higher child mortality rate for girls.Education plays an important role in this matter. In findings it is found that
less educated mother wants more sons while more educated mothers did not have this feeling. Many mothers
want a balance of sons and daughter.
KokilaMeena, ‘Exclusion, Discrimination and deprivation of Women in India‟, trys to explains the basic
differences between discrimination , exclusion and deprivation of women in India .Further explains that women
are considered excluded from the society and the condition of women in this society is very cruel. Further this
paper shows that exclusion, and discrimination derives from social institution/ societal relations and deprivation
is the outcome of exclusion. Different forms of exclusion are the major causes of deprivation of women in India.
Arpita Banerjee, „Status of Women and Gender Discrimination In India‟: A State wise Analysis, reveals from
her study that there are some states in India where gender discrimination is higher. Women is lagging behind in
terms of education,health, employment, social status and so on. Means they are not treated equally in
worldwide. There is strong disparity seen in different states. Whereas in issue like declining sex ratio, the
developed states are performing very badly owing to the factors like excessive son preference, patriarchal social
structure, patrilineal property transfer, religious and ritualistic practice, lower status ascribed to women,
prejudice against girl children through the use of modern techniques of sex selective abortion. So in conclusion
it can be said that government of these states should frame policies and enforce it through the proper use of
machinery so that these extreme form of gender discrimination can be reduced immediately.
V. Some Consitutional Provision For Indian Women:
After Independence several changes are made in our constitution. However many changes are made in
favor of women also, so that women and men can enjoy equal status in life. There is no difference in the eyes of law. Men and women are equal without any kind of having discrimination. Our law treats men and women
In our Constitution there are some legal provision for women and equal opportunities in political,
economic and social sphere.Article14 provides men and women equal right and opportunities in the political ,
economic and social spheres .Article 15 prohibits any kinds of discrimination on grounds of religion, faces,
caste etc. Article 15(3) emphasis that the state shall make special provision for women and children. Article 16
provides equality of opportunity in matter relatingto employment by the state. Article 39(a) emphasis that the
citizen men and women equally and had an adequate means of livelihood. Article39(d) says that state should
provide equal pay for equal work for both men and women. 73th and 74th Amendment of Indian Constitution
reserves one –third (including the number of seats reserved for women of SCs and STs) in Panchayats.A
convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) was adopted and often
described as an International Bill for Right for Women. In 1995, Beijing Conference it is stated that „ women
rights are human rights‟ and it called for integration of women‟s human right in the work of different human
rights bodies of United Nation.In 2001 National Policy for the Empowerment of women was made. The main
aim of this policy is to bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women. It also ensures
fundamental freedom to women along with man in all sphere like political, economic, social, cultural and so on.
Although our constitution has provided equal rights to men and women over all things. So we are nobody to
discriminate women on any ground. In 2005, for the protection of women from these different types of violence,
Domestic Violence Act , 2005 passed by parliament. Since violence against women is both a consequence and a
cause of gender inequality, primary preventive programs that address gender inequality and tackle the root
causes of violence are all essential. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan stated “Gender equality is more than a
goal in itself. It is a precondition for meeting the challenge of reducing poverty, promoting sustainable
development and building good governance.” A true nation cans only success when all kinds of discrimination
remove properly from the society. In 1995, Beijing Conference it is stated that „ women rights are human rights‟
and it called for integration of women‟s human right in the work of different human rights bodies of United
Nation.In 2001 National Policy for the Empowerment of women was made. The main aim of this policy is to
bring about the advancement, development and empowerment of women. It also ensures fundamental freedom
to women along with man in all spheres like political, economic, social, cultural and so on. So different types of
policies and constitutional amendments are made from government side. Now the thing is that we have to make
ourselves strong and alert so that we can use it timely for our betterment of future.
Only making laws and enforcing them is not enough but there is a need of social awakening and change
in the attitude of mindset of masses, so that there should be no discrimination on the basis of gender and gave
equal right and to women. They are the self-owner of their life. Now the time came when women should
empowered themselves. Removal of gender discrimination can help in the women empowerment.Time came
where women should fight for her own right. If we really want our half population i.e. women should progress
and empowered then it is very necessary to remove different kinds of evils that are still prevailing in Indian
society. In this age we should have the motto like——–
“ Educate Women , Educate India”.
discrimination … He said “beta-beti ek samman” (equal treatment of boys and girls) should be … If daughters are …
India has also ratified various international conventions and human rights instruments … The Constitution of India not only grants equality to women but also … the law and equal protection of law; prohibits discrimination against any citizen on … for all citizens in matters relating to employment or appointment to any office …
Women’s rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies … The official slogan was “Men and women are equal; everyone is worth his (or …. equal inheritance rightswith boys if their father died without leaving a will. ….. In India, under colonial rule, universal suffrage was granted in 1935.
Gandhi believed women could do much to transform India on all levels. … What good does it do to us to have equal rights if we are divided within ourselves and unable to attend true unity with … Gandhiji against Gender-based Discrimination … The first condition of non-violence is justice all round in every department of life.
and family – arraigned against women’s equal rights are powerful and shape people’s … reality and the universal right of women to freedom from any gender-based … of violence), this does not discount their gravity, precisely because of the …. planning, or discrimination in turning away Dalit women inneed of serious …
Why is litigation considered a strategic tool for upholding women’s rights? … to have discriminatory legal provisions, instances of which can be seen in … always considered as subjects to be given away or go away from their natal families and … Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women(CEDAW); and the …
Jan 1, 2013 – We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, … Business and HumanRights; Liesl Gerntholtz, Women’s Rights; …. The World Report does not have separate chapters addressing our thematic …. equality is shared by many women in all parts of the …… government regulators in India stand idle.
Women and persons with disabilities also fought for and obtained laws that provided for … but also had to give up their seats to any white person who wanted to sit. … Title II of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits discrimination in places of ….. Indian Treaties have the same recognition under federal law as do treaties with …
Apr 4, 2016 – All provinces and territories also have human rights legislation which prohibits … Whatdoes the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms say? … Everyone in Canada is free to practise anyreligion or no religion at all. … Governments in Canada can‘t discriminate on the basis of someone’s current or …
After the Civil War, many women returned to the fight for women’s rights, but new … women shouldhave the right to vote not because they were the same as …. the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA), which bared discrimination on the basis of sex. …. can ever be legitimately used to justify either sex’s exclusion from any aspect …
India very often have to face discrimination, injustice and dishonour. … The paper will throw light on the human rights of women in India and that how all the fundamental rights given to the women are being violated in India, by focussing on the … The constitution of India has granted equal rights to the men and women.
Searches related to all discriminations to indian women will go away and women will have rights in every department equal rights