10 JUL 1978 MAHATMA PHULE BACKWARD CLASS CORPORATION

 

Abstract—The ancient Indian social systems divides the
society into four broad classes. The same system was followed
till India was invaded by the Britishers driving the British India.
After India won freedom, the new constitution has offered equal
opportunity for all. As a result of which the country witnessed
some progress among the weaker section of the society. To boost
the pace of development various efforts have been made by the
governments in the country. After the western impact and the
capitalist mode of production introduced in the country opened
new areas of accommodation, adjustment and opportunities to
the backward class in India.
The M.P. Backward Class Development Corporation is one
of such organizations aimed at the development of the socially
backward class people in India. An evaluative research is made
herein to assess the performance of the same in the light of the
expectations of the beneficiaries as well as the Govt.
Index Terms—Backward Class, Scheduled Caste, Scheduled
Tribes, Socio Economic Development, Finance Corporations.
I. INTRODUCTION
The social strata which is known as the backward class
represents the down trodden classes of the society. BC has its
origin in the ancient Indian social system. The ancient Indian
social systems divides the society into four broad classes
namely the Brahmin, the Kshatriya (warrior class) the
Vaishya and the Shudra (serving class) in addition to this fifth
class known as Atishudras, who were untouchable existed in
ancient India [1]. This system is described a divine origin
(vide Rigveda X.90,12 also Geeta.4) This system though it
says that the classification is according the inherent aptitudes
and activities adopted (Guna and Karma) but in practice the
classification of the caste based upon birth thus in Indian
society where the unwritten law still prevails the occupation
of person is decided not by his skill and ability but by his
birth the fourth class known as the servant class carried on
occupations like black smith, gold smith, leather workers,
merchant, physician, barber etc. [2]. The same system was
followed till India was invaded by the Britishers driving the
British India. The system received the first threatening as it
has been rightly observed by Dr. Rajendra Prasad [3]. The
ardent of British India concept of rule of law. Their empirical
Manuscript received August 2, 2012; revised September 20, 2012. The
work is based on the empirical study made by the Authors in the Nanded
District Provence of Maharashtra State in India.
B. R. Suryawanshi is with the SRTM University Nanded India as An
Associate Professor in the School of Commerce and Management Sciences.
( dr_suryawanshi@rediffmail.com)
Nishikant C. Dhande is with the School of Commerce and Management
Sciences, SRTM University Nanded, India.( nishikant_dhande@yahoo.com)
interest and the work of Christianity missionaries brought
into contract with a new world of ideas and thoughts. The
constitutional responsibility of Government of Maharashtra
established various corporations for the backward class
development. Such as Mahatma Phule Backward Class
Development Corporation, Lokshahir Annabhau Sathe
Development Corporation, Vasantrao Naik Vimukta Jati and
Nomadic Tribes Development Corporation, Leather
Industries Development Corporation, etc.
These corporations are playing very dominant role for the
development of backward classes by providing finance and
creating self-employment opportunities for the backward
classes.
The Indian economy was characterised by high degree of
poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and social inequalities. To solve
these problems five-year plans have been adopted from 1951
onwards.
The major objective of planning in India was acceleration
of economic development with justice, for this process the
State has been assigned a crucial role. Initially public sector
was expected to control the commanding heights of the
economy. Public sector would not only take into account
economic goals like profit maximisation but also consider
social aspects like providing access to deprived sections to
participate in the development process and thereby provide
justice. In case of socially and economically deprived section
like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, a variety of
special development programmes have been launched in
addition to general development programmes.
The western impact and the capitalist mode of production
introduced in the country opened new areas of
accommodation, adjustment and opportunities. Under the
National scheme of Liberation and Rehabilitation of
Scavengers and their Dependants (NSLRS) co-operatives of
scavengers called sanitary marts have started functioning in
various states in India. Sanitary marts enable the scavengers
to take up alternate jobs and thus help in integrating them into
the main stream of the society.
II. BACKWARD CLASS IN INDIA: A REVIEW
Mahatma Phule Backward Class Development
Corporation Ltd. was set up by the Government of
Maharashtra on 10th July 1978 to act as catalyst for the
economic development of Scheduled Caste, Nav Buddha,
Scheduled Tribes, Vimukta Jati and Nomadic Tribe
communities [4]. The corporation is incorporated under the
Companies Act, 1956. In the year 1984 the segment of VJNT
community has taken away the part and work of their
Socio-Economic Development among Scheduled Caste: A
Study economic development was entrusted to Vasantrao Naik
Vimukta Jati and Nomadic Tribes Development Corporation
Ltd.
 The segment of Scheduled Caste community namely
Matang, Madgi and Mang was transferred to Lokshahir
Annabhau Sathe Development Corporation Ltd. which was
established in the year 1985-86. Since then the corporation is
exclusively working for the development of scheduled Caste
and Nav Buddha communities. At present authorized share
capital of the corporation is Rs.100 crores and the paid up
share capital is Rs.61.33 crores. Th share capital is met from
the contribution of State and Central Government in the ratio
of 51:49.
 The corporation has three-tier administrative machinery
for the implementation of socio-economic upliftment
programme for the Scheduled Castes and Other Backward
Classes in Maharashtra. The Chairman of the corporation is
the supreme authority and the Managing Director, who is the
head of the corporation at the State level.
 According to the Company Act 1956 provisions, the
corporation has applied fifteen (15) Directors, including
Chairman of the corporation. Corporation head office is
located at Juhu Andhreri (West) Mumbai. The corporation
has six regional level mangers along with other ranks and six
regional officers headed by regional managers assisted by
other ranks at the district levels. District Manager is the head
of the office in all the 35 districts of Maharashtra and he is
assisted by adequate subordinate staff members. In view of
reaching to beneficiaries residing in remote areas, the
corporation has established offices in the office of BDO at the
block level at the rate of one block in each district developing
the fourth-tier administration.
The corporation has established vocational training centre
at Jambhul in Thane district to provide training in various
trades, exclusively to the liberated scavengers and their
wards.
The corporation has established survey, monitoring,
recovery and evaluation cell at Aurangabad. The cell is
having six recovery officers at six regional head quarters.
Three district managers along with five subordinate staff
members are stationed at Aurangabad for the survey and
monitoring work.
Considering the needs of the Scheduled Caste to
rehabilitate them and to provide alternative job opportunities
and training programmes like repairing, steel binding,
automobile mechanic, motor driving, tailoring, etc. This
training project is being implemented by Mahatma Phule
Backward Class Development Corporation Ltd. Special
central assistance is received from the Government of India
under Special Component Plan.
During the plan period, corporation has selected 80 blocks
one from each district. The selection of the block has been
made on the concentration of Scheduled Castes and Other
Backward Castes population in descending order. The project
of the plan is to cover all the families who come under
poverty line and income generating assets in the block for
them [5].
III. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The present study makes an effort to determine how far
Mahatma Phule Backward Class Development Corporation
has successfully worked in achieving the formulated objects
and for that matter to perceive the subject from all possible
angels that are perceptible with the tools of statistics, logics
and reason. Thus the objectives are – study the
socio-economic background of backward class beneficiaries,
examine the performance of backward class beneficiaries,
Study the views and aspirations of backward class
beneficiaries regarding the backward class development by
Mahatma Phule Backward Class Development Corporation
Ltd, and examine the problems and difficulties faced by the
backward class beneficiaries.
IV. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The present researcher thinks it necessary to explain the
economic development of the backward class defined by the
Government of Maharashtra and according to Indian
Constitution. The present research work is based on the
evaluation and assessment of the primary and secondary data,
collected from the beneficiaries of MPBC development
Corporation through questionnaire from Nanded district. The
data about economic development of the backward class
people was collected by the researcher himself with the help
of questionnaire [6].
V. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY DATA
While preparing the questionnaire an attempt was made to
have as many structured questions as possible. While filling
the questionnaire the interviews were largely conducted at
the residence of the beneficiaries and thereby questionnaire
was filled. At the time of interviews with beneficiaries and
while filling the questionnaire researcher attempted to
explain the purpose and importance of the study to the
beneficiaries, National Scheduled Caste and Scheduled
Tribes Finance Development Corporation, Mahatma Phule
Backward Class Development Corporation Ltd. Statistical
Abstracts of Maharashtra Govt, Other Government of Indian
and Government of Maharashtra publications and journals,
books, etc, National Backward Classes Finance Development
Corporation, Reports of National Scheduled Caste
Commission, New Delhi [7].
VI. OBSERVATIONS
TABLE I: AGE OF THE BENEFICIARIES [8]
Age (In Years) Frequency Percentage
Upto 20 10 10
20 – 30 15 15
30 – 40 48 48
40 – 50 24 24
50 – 60 03 03
Average Age = 35 Years
Total 100 100
In this chapter an attempt is made to present a profile of the
backward class beneficiaries. The parameters like age, education, occupation, marital Status, Caste of the
beneficiaries, other earning hands, monthly savings, income
tax, monthly saving, activities selected by the beneficiaries,
infrastructure provided, channels used to approach the
MPBCDC, schemes selected, are taken into consideration in
presenting the profile of the beneficiaries.
Table explains the age of the beneficiaries (about the
average age of the sample is 35 year‟s). 48% of the
beneficiaries are from the age group of 30 to 40 years, and
24% belongs to the age group of 40 to 50 years. There are
hardly 15% and 10% of the beneficiaries in the age group of
20 to 30 and upto 20 years respectively. Whereas just 3%
belongs to the age group of 50 to 60 years. The average age of
the sample comes to 35 years.
TABLE II: EDUCATION OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Education Frequency Percentage
Illiterate 40 40
Primary 08 08
Matriculate 10 10
Higher
Secondary
20 20
Graduate 15 15
Post-Graduate 07 07
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 1. Educational Background
Table gives the details about educational qualification of
the beneficiaries. 40% of the total sample is illiterate. 20%
beneficiaries belong to the higher secondary qualification and
15% of the beneficiaries are graduates, there are 10% and 8%
of the beneficiaries in the education group of matriculate and
primary level respectively. Whereas 7% in the sample of the
beneficiaries belong to the education group of the
Post-Graduate level.
TABLE III: OCCUPATION OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Occupation Frequency Percentage
Professional 03 03
Traders 15 15
Farmers 07 07
Agricultural
Labour
18 18
Non-agricultural
Labour
27 27
Unemployed 30 30
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 2. Occupation of Beneficiaries
Table reveals the details of the occupation of the backward
class beneficiaries. 30% beneficiaries of backward class are
unemployed. 27% of the beneficiaries belong to the
non-agricultural labour. 18% and 15% of the beneficiaries
falls in the occupation group of agricultural labour and
traders respectively. Whereas 7% and 3% in the sample of
beneficiaries belong to the occupation group of farmers and
professionals.
TABLE IV: MARITAL STATUS OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Marital Status Frequency Percentage
Married 84 84
Unmarried 16 16
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
It can be observed from the above table that 84% backward
class beneficiaries are married. Only 16% beneficiaries of the
backward class are unmarried. It can also be said that after
getting married the backward class beneficiaries opted the
business activities but not before marriage.
TABLE V: CASTE OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Name of the Caste Frequency Percentage
Mahar / Nav Buddha 60 60
Burud 06 06
Bhangi 10 10
Mehatar Bhangi 05 05
Walmik Bhangi 08 08
Chambhar 11 11
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 3. Caste of the beneficieries
It can be observed from the above table that out of the total
sample of the backward class beneficiaries only 60% belongs
to Mahar/Buddha Scheduled Caste. 11% beneficiaries from
Chambhar Scheduled Caste. 10% beneficiaries belong to
Bhangi caste. 8% and 6% of the beneficiaries are in the caste of Walmik Bhangi and Burud Scheduled Caste respectively.
Whereas 5% in the sample of beneficiaries belong to the
Mehatar Bhangi Scheduled Caste.
TABLE IV: OTHER EARNING HANDS OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Other Earning Hands Frequency Percentage
Wife 16 16
Father 10 10
Mother 06 06
Son 15 15
Daughter 02 02
No other earning hands 51 51
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Table indicates the details of other earning hands of the
beneficiaries. Accordingly 51% belong to the backward class
beneficiaries do not have any other earning hands. 16%
beneficiaries have wife‟s as there other earning hands while
15%, 10%, 6% and 2% beneficiaries have son‟s, father‟s,
mother‟s and daughter‟s as other earning hands.
TABLE VII: MONTHLY SAVING OF THE BENEFICIARIES
Monthly Savings Frequency Percentage
No Saving 42 42
Below 200 20 20
200 – 400 14 14
400 – 600 09 09
600 – 800 07 07
800 – 1,000 04 04
1,000 and above 04 04
Total 100 100
Average Monthly Saving Rs.236/-
Source: Field Survey.
Table exhibits the details of the monthly saving policy of
the backwards class beneficiaries is Rs.236/- but 42%
beneficiaries do not have monthly saving. 20% of the
beneficiaries belong to the monthly saving group of below
Rs.200/- and 23% beneficiaries belong to the monthly saving
group in between Rs.200 to 600/-. 7% and 4% belong to
monthly saving group of Rs.600/- to Rs.800/- to Rs.1000/-
respectively. Whereas just 4% beneficiaries belong to
monthly saving group of Rs.1000/- and above. The average
monthly saving of the beneficiaries comes to Rs.236/-.
TABLE VIII: REMARKS ABOUT PAYMENT OF INCOME TAX BY
BENEFICIARIES
Sr Remarks about
Income Tax
Frequency Percentage
1. YES 04 04
2. NO 96 96
Total 100 100
It can be observed from the above table that out of the total
sample of the backward class beneficiaries 96% beneficiaries
are not income tax payers. Whereas only 4% beneficiaries
were income tax payers. Therefore it can be said that 96% are
non tax payers among the backward class beneficiaries.
TABLE IX: ACTIVITIES SELECTED BY BENEFICIARIES
Sr. Activity Frequency Percentage
1. Farming 03 03
2. Trading 49 49
3. Manufacturing 16 16
4. Service 28 28
5. Others 04 04
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 4. Activities Selected
Table highlights all the details of activities selected by
beneficiaries. Out of the total sample of 100. 49%
beneficiaries have selected trading activities, whereas 16% of
the beneficiaries have selected manufacturing activities and
28% beneficiaries have selected service activities from the
backward corporation. 4% and 3% beneficiaries have
selected other activities and farming activities. Thus it can be
said that the majority of people from backward class
beneficiaries have selected trading activities.
TABLE X: INFRASTRUCTURE PROVIDED BY CORPORATION TO
BENEFICIARIES
Sr. Infrastructure Frequency Percentage
1. Shed 19 19
2. Building
Construction
— —
3. Land — —
4. Machinery 15 15
5. Service 21 21
6. Not Provided 45 45
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 5. Infrastructure
International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, Vol. 2, No. 5, September 2012 435The above table shows the infrastructure provided by the
corporation. Out of the total sample of the beneficiaries 45%
beneficiaries are in favour of Infrastructure is not provided by
the corporation. 21% beneficiaries are in favour of service is
provided by the corporation for the beneficiaries. Whereas
19% beneficiaries are in favour of the shed is provided to the
beneficiaries for their business units and 15% beneficiaries
are in favour of infrastructure of machinery given by the
corporation.
TABLE XI: CHANNEL USED BY BENEFICIARIES
Sr.No Channel Frequency Percentage
1. Personally 65 65
2. Middleman 08 08
3. Relatives 12 12
4. Friends 03 03
5. Newspapers 02 02
6. Persuasion Programme by
Corporation
10 10
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
Fig. 6. Channels used for access
It can be seen from the above table that 65% of the
beneficiaries have personally approached to the corporation.
Whereas 12% have approached through relatives. 10%
beneficiaries have used the source of persuasion programme
by the corporation. 8% beneficiaries approached through
middleman. 3% and 2% beneficiaries approached to the
development corporation through, their friends and
newspapers respectively.
Thus it can be said that majority of the backward class
beneficiaries have approached in person to the corporation.
TABLE XII: SCHEME SELECTED BY BENEFICIARIES
Sr.No
.
Name of the Schemes Frequency Percentage
1. Loan subsidy scheme 51 51
2. Margin money scheme 14 14
3. National scavengers scheme 10 10
4. Training scheme 09 09
5. N.S.F.D.C. schemes 16 16
6. Others — —
Total 100 100
Source: Field Survey.
The data presented in table shows the schemes selected by
beneficiaries. Out of the total sample of 100, 51%
beneficiaries have selected loan subsidy schemes of the
concerned corporation. Whereas 16% beneficiaries have
selected national Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes
Finance Development Corporation Schemes and 14%
beneficiaries have selected margin money scheme.
Fig. 7. Scheme Selected by Beneficiaries
VII. CONCLUSION
In an attempt to evaluate the performance of the MPBCDC
in Maharashtra, it is found that, the performance is not up to
the mark of the success. The majority of the beneficiaries are
among the age group of 30 to 40, whereas according to the
suitable age of development point of view, the ideal age
group should have been 20 to 30. This highlights the scope
for the publicity of the scheme among the backward class
people in Maharashtra. If the scheme is opted by the
beneficiaries at the proper age, the results would go better
towards the upliftment of the economical status of the people.
The average age is found to be 35 which is late start. It should
have been 25.
On the criteria of the educational qualifications, there is
peculiar observation as 40% among them are illiterate and as
only 15% are graduates, it means that the illiterates are more
aware than the Graduates. Hence, the scheme should be made
popular among the graduates too.
The scheme opted in handsome number by the
unemployed and the Non agriculture labours. In a sense, the
scheme has benefitted the weaker section of the society who
are deprived from the financial support otherwise. It can be
stated that the implementation is in right direction, though not
up to the mark.
From the caste point of view of the benefits, Mahar and the
Nav Buddhas are in majority ( 60%) among the all. The status
of the Mahetar Bhangi and the Walmik Bhangi is
comparatively low. This needs to be looked in to seriously
and new promotional ways are to be found out to cover the
weaker section under the same umbrella of benefits.
In response to the criteria of saving as a measure of
economical status indicator and indicator of financial
awareness, the data reveals that the performance is very poor
as 42% of the people do not earn enough so that they can do
some saving. Similarly, only 4% of the beneficiaries are able
to save an amount in four digits.
Among the all beneficiaries the trend indicates that
„Trading „ is chosen by many, next to service followed by
Manufacturing. The scenario will be better if the
Manufacturing would take a front seat to create more
employment among the society through the MPBCDC
schemes.
On the grounds of the provision of the infrastructure to the
beneficiaries by the MPBCDC, it is found that, MPBCDC is
not providing any infrastructure to majority of the people.
 To the brighter side of the performance, it is found that thepeople have preferred to approach the Corporation personally
to get the benefits of the schemes. The support of the channel
like news paper has gathered very feeble response.
The subsidy on the loan and the Margin Money schemes
are found to be more popular among the beneficiaries,
whereas, the Training schemes are not taking roots yet.
Accordingly 51% belong to the backward class beneficiaries
do not have any other earning hands. Average monthly
saving is Rs. 236/-. Only 4 among the samples are income tax
payers meaning there by 96% samples are non-income tax
payers. Out of the total sample of 100. 49% beneficiaries
have selected trading activities. Most of the total sample of
the beneficiaries 45% beneficiaries are in favour of
Infrastructure is not provided by the corporation. 21%
beneficiaries are in favour of service is provided by the
corporation for the beneficiaries.
In overall the schemes are definitely benefitting the
underprivileged and the weaker section of the society in
Maharashtra, yet there is scope to improve the performance
of the schemes by making creative and innovative
modifications in the scheme so that schemes would be more
popular to reach to major class of the people with a rapid
pace.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
The authors are thankful to the various Govt. Authorities
for the extension of their cooperation to this study. The
authors are also thankful to the Hon‟ble Vice Chancellor of
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University, Nanded
Dr. S.B.Nimse for his valuable guidance and motivation
extended time to time. In addition to that the Authors are also
thankful to the beneficiaries who have cooperated for
completion of the research besides the fellow colleagues and
the research students who have supported the work directly or
indirectly.
REFERENCES
[1] C. Aggarwal, Caste, Religion and Power: An Indian Case Study, Shri
Ram Centre For Industrial Relations, New Delhi, 1971.
[2] I. J. Ahluwalia, Productivity and Growth in Indian Manufacturing,
Oxford University Press, Delhi, 1991.
[3] J. Aikara, Scheduled Castes and Higher Education: A Case Study of
College Students in Bombay, Dastane Ram Chandra, Poona, 1980.
[4] B. R. Ambedkar, Selected Speeches Compiled By Bhagwandas, vol. I
& II, Bheem Patrika Publications, Jullundur City, 1963 & 1969.
[5] Census of India, Series 28, Maharashtra Provisional Population Total I
& II 2001.
[6] Annual Credit Plan 2001-2002, Lead Bank, Nanded District, State
Bank of India, Lead Bank Department, Local Head office, Mumbai.
[7] Economic Survey, Government of Indian, Ministry of Finance
Economic Divisions, 1994-95.
[8] B. R. Suryawanshi, “Role of MPBCDC in economic development of
backward classes in Maharashtra with special reference to Nanded
District,” International conference on sociality and economic
development , vol. 10, 2011.
Dr. B. R. Suryawanshi is Associate Professor in the
School of Commerce and Management Sciences,
Swami Ramanand Teerth Marathwada University,
Nanded, Maharashtra, India. He has acquired
M.Com., MBA, M.Phil., B.Ed., Ph.D. GDC&A, NET
qualifications to his credit. He is a approved Research
Guide for the M.Phil and the Ph.D. in the area of
Commerce and Management Science.
Dr. Nishikant C. Dhande is Electronics Engineer and
Masters in Computer Science as well as in
Management. He has acquired Ph.D. in System
Management. Former Lecturer in Electronics
Technology, S.B.E.S. College of Science, Aurangabad
India. Faculty for M.C.A. and M.Sc. Computer
Science, presently working as Assistant Professor,
School of Management Science, S.R.T.M University,
Nanded, Maharashtra India. Ten Books and course
material published. Current research interests are in Systems and
Management along with computer application. Founder member of
Computer Society of India Aurangabad Chapter, IAENG, reviewer of IEEE
SMC & Cybernetics. Experience of More than 24 years in teaching,
industrial consultancy besides the R & D. He is a approved Research Guide
for the Ph.D. & M.Phil in Management Science, Computer Science & I.T.
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